Finite. Total Magnification: 100-400X. 10X Eyepiece. 10X 20X 40X Long Working Distance Plan Achromatic Metallurgical Objective. Standard Coupler: 1X. Eye Tube Angle: 30°. Eyepiece Field of View: Dia. 18mm. XY Stage Travel Distance: 14x17mm. Illumination Type: Halogen Coaxial Reflection Light. Light Adjustable. Input Voltage: AC 110V 60Hz.
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Metallurgical MicroscopeClose Λ
|A metallurgical microscope is a microscope that uses incident illumination (also known as reflection light) to observe the metallurgical structure of the surface of a metal specimen and perform microscopic analysis. Metallurgical microscopic analysis is widely involved in the material microstructure, internal components, state imaging, and qualitative and quantitative analysis, including the quantitative and spatial distribution of the phase and tissue structure, composition, crystallization and sub-crystallization, non-metallic inclusions, and tissue defects of the materials etc.|
Metallurgical microscope is one of the important components of industrial microscope. In addition to observing metal surface, metallurgical microscope plays an important role in metal heat treatment and cold processing. It is no longer limited to metal research, as it is also widely applied in other opaque or translucent objects, including fibers, soils, minerals, crystals, ceramics, surface treatments, integrated circuits, LCD screens, and other industries. Modern Metallurgical microscope not only have good optical systems, but also combine optical microscope, photoelectric conversion technology, and computer image processing technology to easily observe metallurgical images and analyze and rate metallurgical maps.
The quality of the image is the primary indicator of metallurgical microscope. Metallurgical microscope needs the basic conditions of optical imaging such as high brightness, high contrast, high resolution and good color reproduction. At the same time, due to the environment applied, the microscope needs to be solid and durable.
Metallurgical microscope generally uses coaxial reflection light method. The illuminating light passes through a coaxial reflection illuminator, after rotating a 90 degree angle, it is irradiated vertically (or nearly vertically) to the surface of the object to be observed, and then reflected back into the eyepiece through the objective lens.
Notes on the Use of Metallurgical Microscope:
When the observed metal surface is too rough, due to the diffusing effect of the incident light, the microscope cannot observe its internal structure, grinding and polishing of the surface of the metal sample must be carried out. However, during the process, no tissue structural change should occur on the surface; when some metal structures have a particularly strong surface reflection, it is necessary to use a certain reagent for corrosion treatment, dissolve some components, and thus see the morphology of the tissue.
Metallurgical microscope are complex in function and diverse in components, and often large-scale metallurgical microscope are modular and require self-installation and commissioning. Be sure to read the operating manual first and carefully check the completeness of the components.
Prior to installation and use, installation and adjustment of location of components are required. In particular, the positional adjustment of the light source in the coaxial reflection illuminator has a very big influence on the brightness and uniformity of the imaging illumination.
For more information on the use of metallurgical microscopes, please refer to the Biological Microscope Biomicroscope on the BoliOptics website.
|Microscopes and components have two types of optical path design structures.|
One type is finite optical structural design, in which light passing through the objective lens is directed at the intermediate image plane (located in the front focal plane of the eyepiece) and converges at that point. The finite structure is an integrated design, with a compact structure, and it is a kind of economical microscope.
Another type is infinite optical structural design, in which the light between the tube lens after passing the objective lens becomes "parallel light". Within this distance, various kinds of optical components necessary such as beam splitters or optical filters call be added, and at the same time, this kind of design has better imaging results. As the design is modular, it is also called modular microscope. The modular structure facilitates the addition of different imaging and lighting accessories in the middle of the system as required.
The main components of infinite and finite, especially objective lens, are usually not interchangeable for use, and even if they can be imaged, the image quality will also have some defects.
The separative two-objective lens structure of the dual-light path of stereo microscope (SZ/FS microscope) is also known as Greenough.
Parallel optical microscope uses a parallel structure (PZ microscope), which is different from the separative two-object lens structure, and because its objective lens is one and the same, it is therefore also known as the CMO common main objective.
Mechanical Tube LengthClose Λ
|For objective lens design of finite microscope, its mechanical tube length is the distance from the objective nosepiece shoulder of the objective lens to the eyepiece seat in the tubes, that is, the eyepiece shoulder.|
There are two standards in the traditional microscope structure, namely, DIN and JIS. DIN (Deutsches Institute fur Normung) is a popular international standard for microscopes, using 195mm standard conjugate distance (also known as object to primary image distance, 36mm objective lens parfocal distance, and 146.5mm optical tube length.
JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) is a standard adopted by some Japanese manufacturers, using 160mm standard conjugate distance (also known as object to primary image distance), 45mm objective lens parfocal distance), and 150mm optical tube length.
Using the same microscope standard design, the objective lenses can be used interchangeably.
System Optical MagnificationClose Λ
|The magnification of the objective lens refers to the lateral magnification, it is the ratio of the image to the real size after the original image is magnified by the instrument. This multiple refers to the length or width of the magnified object.|
System optical magnification is the product of the eyepiece and the objective lens (objective lens zoom set) of the optical imaging part within the system.
Optical magnification = eyepiece multiple X objective lens/objective lens set
The maximum optical magnification of the microscope depends on the wavelength of the light to which the object is illuminated. The size of the object that can be observed must be greater than the wavelength of the light. Otherwise, the light cannot be reflected or transmitted, or recognized by the human eye. The shortest wavelength of ultraviolet light is 0.2 microns, so the resolution of the optical microscope in the visible range does not exceed 0.2 microns, or 200 nanometers. This size is converted to the magnification of the microscope, and it is the optical magnification of 2000X. Usually, the compound microscope can achieve 100X objective lens, the eyepiece is 20X, and the magnification can reach 2000X. If it is bigger, it will be called "invalid magnification", that is, the image is large, but the resolution is no longer increased, and no more details and information can be seen.
Trinocular Optical MagnificationClose Λ
|When the instrument is conducting electronic image magnification and observation through a camera or the like, the optically magnified portion may not be the optical path that passes through the "eyepiece-objective lens" of the instrument, at this time, the calculation method of the magnification is related to the third-party photo eyepiece passed. |
The trinocular optical magnification is equal to the multiplier product of objective lens (objective lens set) and the photo eyepiece
Trinocular optical magnification = objective lens X photo eyepiece
Total MagnificationClose Λ
|Total magnification is the magnification of the observed object finally obtained by the instrument. This magnification is often the product of the optical magnification and the electronic magnification.|
When it is only optically magnified, the total magnification will be the optical magnification.
Total magnification = optical magnification X electronic magnification
Total magnification = (objective X photo eyepiece) X (display size / camera sensor target )
System Field of ViewClose Λ
|Field of View, is also called FOV. |
The field of view, or FOV, refers to the size of the object plane (i.e., the plane of the point of the observed object perpendicular to the optical axis), or of its conjugate plane (i.e., object to primary image distance), represented by a line value.
System field of view is the size of the actual diameter of the image of the terminal display device of the instrument, such as the size of the image in the eyepiece or in the display.
Field of view number refers to the diameter of the field diaphragm of the objective lens, or the diameter of the image plane formed by the field diaphragm.
Field of view number of objective lens = field of view number of eyepiece / (objective magnification / mechanical tube length)
Large field of view makes it easy to observe the full view and more range of the observed object, but the field of view (FOV) is inversely proportional to the magnification and inversely proportional to the resolution, that is, the larger the field of view, the smaller the magnification, and also the lower the resolution of the object to be observed.
There are usually two ways to increase the field of view, one is to replace with an objective lens of a smaller multiple, or to replace with an eyepiece of a smaller multiple.
System Working DistanceClose Λ
|Working distance, also referred to as WD, is usually the vertical distance from the foremost surface end of the objective lens of the microscope to the surface of the observed object.|
When the working distance or WD is large, the space between the objective lens and the object to be observed is also large, which can facilitate operation and the use of corresponding lighting conditions.
In general, system working distance is the working distance of the objective lens. When some other equipment, such as a light source etc., is used below the objective lens, the working distance (i.e., space) will become smaller.
Working distance or WD is related to the design of the working distance of the objective lens. Generally speaking, the bigger the magnification of the objective lens, the smaller the working distance. Conversely, the smaller the magnification of the objective lens, the greater the working distance.
When it is necessary to change the working distance requirement, it can be realized by changing the magnification of the objective lens.
|For siedentopf eyetube, when changing the interpupillary distance, it requires two hands pushing or pulling the two eyetubes left and right simultaneously, and the two eyepiece tubes or eyetubes will change their position at the same time.|
Eye Tube AngleClose Λ
|Usually the Microscope Eyetube is 45°, some is 30°, Tiltable Eyetube Angle design of a microscope is also known as the ergonomics microscope.|
0-30° or 0-45° is an ergonomic design. When the mechanical tube length / focal length of the tube of the microscope is relatively big, the microscope is relatively high, and the user's height or the seat of the work desk is not suitable, long-term use of microscope may cause sitting discomfort.
Eyepiece tube with variable angle can freely adjust the angle without lowering the head. Especially when it is close to 0 degree and the human eye is close to horizontal viewing, long-time or long-term use can avoid fatigue damage to the cervical vertebra.
Erect/Inverted ImageClose Λ
|After imaging through a set of objective lenses, the object observed and the image seen by the human eye is inverted. When the observed object is manipulated, move the specimen or object, the image will move in the opposite direction in the field of view. Most of the biological microscopes are reversed-phase designs.|
When needing to operate works with accurate direction, it is necessary to design it into a forward microscope. Generally stereo microscopes and metallurgical microscopes are all of erect image design.
When observing through the camera and display, the erect and inverted image can be changed by the orientation of the camera.
360° Degree RotatableClose Λ
|The eyepiece of the microscope can have different viewing or observing directions. When the position of the microscope is uncomfortable, the direction of the eyepiece tube of the microscope can be adjusted, to facilitate observation and operation.|
Placement method of different viewing angles of the microscope:
General direction: the support column is behind the object to be observed
Reverse direction: the support column is in front of the object to be observed
Lateral direction: the support column is on the side of the object to be observed
Rotating eyepiece tube, different microscopes may have different methods, for some, the direction is confirmed when installing the eyepiece tube of the microscope, for some, by rotating the body of the microscope, and for some, by rotating the support member on the support or holder of the microscope.
Interpupillary AdjustmentClose Λ
|The distance between the two pupils of the human eye is different. When the image of exit pupil of the two eyepieces of the microscope are not aligned with the entry pupil of the eye, the two eyes will see different images, which can cause discomfort.|
Adjust the distance between the two eyepieces, to accommodate or adapt to the pupil distance of the observer's eyes. The adjustment range is generally between 55-75mm.
Eye Tube Diopter AdjustableClose Λ
|For most people, their two eyes, the left and the right, have different vision; for the eyepiece tube, the eyepoint height of the eyepiece can be adjusted to compensate for the difference in vision between the two eyes, so that the imaging in the two eyes is clear and consistent. |
The range of adjustment of the eyepiece tube is generally diopter plus or minus 5 degrees, and the maximum differential value between the two eyepieces can reach 10 degrees.
Monocular adjustable and binocular adjustable: some microscopes have one eyepiece tube adjustable, and some have two eyepiece tubes adjustable. First, adjust one eyepiece tube to the 0 degree position, adjust the microscope focusing knob, and find the clear image of this eyepiece (when the monocular adjustable is used, first adjust the focusing knob to make this eyepiece image clear), then adjust the image of another eyepiece tube (do not adjust the focusing knob again at this time), repeatedly adjust to find the clear position, then the two images are clear at the same time. For this particular user, do not adjust this device anymore in the future.
As some microscopes do not have the vision adjustment mechanism for the eyepiece tube, the vision of the two eyes are adjusted through the eyepiece adjustable.
Image Port Switch ModeClose Λ
|The third eyepiece splitting in the trinocular microscope is to borrow one of the two sets of eyepiece optical paths as the photographic light path. The beam split prism or beam splitter can reflect part of the image light to the eyepiece, and part passes through to the third eyepiece photographic light path, such a trinocular microscope is called trinocular simultaneous imaging microscope, or true-trinocular.|
The beam split prism or beam splitter of the trinocular simultaneous imaging microscope or true-trinocular often has different splitting modes, such as 20/80 and 50/50, etc. Usually, the former is the luminous flux ratio of the eyepiece optical path, and the latter is the luminous flux ratio of the photographic optical path.
The advantage of true-trinocular is that, the real three optical paths can be imaged at the same time, and are not affected by the simultaneous use of the eyepiece observation and the photographic optical path (display). The disadvantage is that, because of the reason of the splitting, the image light of the photography is only a part. In theory, the image effect will be affected, and the effect is more obvious in the binocular eyepiece observation. If viewed closely, one will find that the eyepiece of the light path is relatively dark. However, in the current optical design and materials, the impact on the actual work is not very big, especially in the observation of low magnification objective lens, it has basically no effect at all, and therefore used by many people.
Eyepiece Optical MagnificationClose Λ
|Eyepiece optical magnification is the visual magnification of the virtual image after initial imaging through the eyepiece. When the human eye observes through the eyepiece, the ratio of the tangent of the angle of view of the image and the tangent of the angle of view of the human eye when viewing or observing the object directly at the reference viewing distance is usually calculated according to 250 mm/focal length of eyepiece.|
The standard configuration of a general microscope is a 10X eyepiece.
Usually, the magnification of the eyepiece of compound microscope is 5X, 8X, 10X, 12.5X, 16X, 20X.
As stereo microscope has a low total magnification, its eyepiece magnification generally does not use 5X, but can achieve 25X, 30X and other much bigger magnification.
Eyepiece Field of ViewClose Λ
|The eyepiece field of view is the diameter of the field diaphragm of the eyepiece, or the diameter of the image plane of the field diaphragm imaged by the field diaphragm.|
The diameter of a large field of view can increase the viewing range, and see more detail in the field of view. However, if the field of view is too large, the spherical aberration and distortion around the eyepiece will increase, and the stray light around the field of view will affect the imaging effect.
Eyepoint TypeClose Λ
|Eye point refers to the axial distance between the upper end of the metal frame of the eyepiece and the exit of pupil.|
The exit of pupil distance of high eyepoint eyepiece is farther than that of the eye lens of the ordinary eyepiece. When this distance is greater than or equal to 18mm, it is a high eyepoint eyepiece. When observing, one does not need to be too close to the eyepiece lens, making it comfort to observe, and it can also be viewed with glasses. Generally, there is a glasses logo on the eyepiece, indicating that it is a high eyepoint eyepiece.
Objective Optical MagnificationClose Λ
|The finite objective is the lateral magnification of the primary image formed by the objective at a prescribed distance.|
Infinite objective is the lateral magnification of the real image produced by the combination of the objective and the tube lens.
Infinite objective magnification = tube lens focal length (mm) / objective focal length (mm)
Lateral magnification of the image, that is, the ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object.
The larger the magnification of the objective, the higher the resolution, the smaller the corresponding field of view, and the shorter the working distance.
Objective TypeClose Λ
|In the case of polychromatic light imaging, the aberration caused by the light of different wavelengths becomes chromatic aberration. Achromatic aberration is to correct the axial chromatic aberration to the two line spectra (C line, F line); apochromatic aberration is to correct the three line spectra (C line, D line, F line).|
The objective is designed according to the achromaticity and the flatness of the field of view. It can be divided into the following categories.
Achromatic objective: achromatic objective has corrected the chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, and comatic aberration. The chromatic portion of the achromatic objective has corrected only red and green, so when using achromatic objective, yellow-green filters are often used to reduce aberrations. The aberration of the achromatic objective in the center of the field of view is basically corrected, and as its structure is simple, the cost is low, it is commonly used in a microscope.
Semi-plan achromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of achromatic objective, the curvature of field and astigmatism of the objective should also be properly corrected.
Plan achromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of achromatic objectives, the curvature of field and astigmatism of the objective should also be well corrected. The plan objective provides a very good correction of the image plane curvature in the field of view of the objective, making the entire field of view smooth and easy to observe, especially in measurement it has achieved a more accurate effect.
Plan semi-apochromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of plan achromatic objective, it is necessary to well correct the secondary spectrum of the objective (the axial chromatic aberration of the C line and the F line).
Plan apochromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of plan achromatic objective, it is necessary to very well correct the tertiary spectrum of the objective (the axial chromatic aberration of the C line, the D line and the F line) and spherochromatic aberration. The apochromatic aberration has corrected the chromatic aberration in the range of red, green and purple (basically the entire visible light), and there is basically no limitation on the imaging effect of the light source. Generally, the apochromatic aberration is used in a high magnification objective.
Objective Parfocal DistanceClose Λ
|Objective parfocal distance refers to the imaging distance between the objective shoulder and the uncovered object surface (referred to as the “object distance). It conforms to the microscope design, usually 45mm. |
The objective of different magnifications of the compound microscope has different lengths; when the distance between the objective shoulder and the object distance is the same, the focal length may not be adjusted when converting to objectives of different magnifications.
Objective for Mechanical Tube LengthClose Λ
|Objective for mechanical tube length is a design parameter of the mechanical tube length of the microscope that the objective is suitable for.|
Objective Working DistanceClose Λ
|The objective working distance is the vertical distance from the foremost surface end of the objective of the microscope to the object surface to be observed.|
Generally, the greater the magnification, the higher the resolution of the objective, and the smaller the working distance, the smaller the field of view. Conversely, the smaller the magnification, the lower the resolution of the objective, and the greater the working distance, and greater the field of view.
High-magnification objectives (such as 80X and 100X objectives) have a very short working distance. Be very careful when focusing for observation. Generally, it is after the objective is in position, the axial limit protection is locked, then the objective is moved away from the direction of the observed object.
The relatively greater working distance leaves a relatively large space between the objective and the object to be observed. It is suitable for under microscope operation, and it is also easier to use more illumination methods. The defect is that it may reduce the numerical aperture of the objective, thereby reducing the resolution.
Numerical Aperture (N.A.)Close Λ
|Numerical aperture, N.A. for short, is the product of the sinusoidal function value of the opening or solid angle of the beam reflected or refracted from the object into the mouth of the objective and the refractive index of the medium between the front lens of the objective and the object.|
Simply speaking, it is the magnitude of the luminous flux that can be brought in to the mouth of the objective adapter, the closer the objective to the specimen for observation, the greater the solid angle of the beam entering the mouth of the objective adapter, the greater the N.A. value, and the higher the resolution of the objective.
When the mouth of the objective adapter is unchanged and the working distance between the objective and the specimen is constant, the refractive index of the medium will be of certain meaning. For example, the refractive index of air is 1, water is 1.33, and cedar oil is 1.515, therefore, when using an aqueous medium or cedar oil, a greater N.A. value can be obtained, thereby improving the resolution of the objective.
N.A. = refractive index of the medium X sin solid angle of the beam of the object entering the front lens frame of the objective/ 2
Numerical aperture of the objective. Usually, there is a calculation method for the magnification of the microscope. That is, the magnification of the microscope cannot exceed 1000X of the objective. For example, the numerical aperture of a 100X objective is 1.25, when using a 10X eyepiece, the total magnification is 1000X, far below 1.25 X 1000 = 1250X, then the image seen in the eyepiece is relatively clear; if a 20X eyepiece is used, the total magnification will reach 2000X, much higher than 1250X, then eventhoughthe image actually seen by the 20X eyepiece is relatively large, the effect will be relatively poor.
Objective Cover Glass ThicknessClose Λ
|The thickness of the cover glass affects the parfocal distance of the objective. Usually, in the design of the focal length of the objective,the thickness of the cover glass should be considered, and the standard is 0.17mm.|
Objective Immersion MediaClose Λ
|The use of different media between the objective and the object to be observed is to change and improve the resolution. For example, the refractive index of air is 1, water is 1.33, and cedar oil is 1.515. Therefore, when using an aqueous medium or cedar oil, a greater N.A. value can be obtained, thereby increasing the resolution of the objective.|
Air medium is called dry objective, where oil is used as medium iscalled oil immersion objective, and water medium is called water immersion objective.
However, because of the working distance of the objective, when the working distance of the objective is too long, the use of liquid medium will be relatively more difficult, and it is generally used only on high magnification objective having a shorter working distance, such as objectives of 60X, 80X and 100X.
When using oil immersion objective, first add a drop of cedar oil (objective oil) on the cover glass, then adjust the focus (fine adjustment) knob, and carefully observe it from under the side of the objective of the microscope, until the oil immersion objective is immersed in the cedar oil and close to the cover glass of the specimen, then use the eyepiece to observe, and use the fine focus knob to lift the tube until the clear imageof the specimen is clearly seen.
The cedar oil should be added in an appropriate amount. After the oil immersion objective is used, it is necessary to use a piece of lens wiping tissue to dip xylene to wipe off the cedar oil, and then wipe dry the lens thoroughly with a lens wiping tissue.
Spring Mounted ObjectiveClose Λ
|The front end of the objective is equipped with a spring device. When the working distance of the objective is too short, focusing can easily make the objective contact the object to be observed, thereby damaging the object to be observed or the front lens. At this time, the spring acts to recover the front end of the objective lens. It is usually used on high magnification objectives with very short working distances.|
Objective Screw ThreadClose Λ
|For microscopes of different manufacturers and different models, the thread size of their objectives may also be different. |
In general, the objective threads are available in two standard sizes, allowing similar objectives between different manufacturers to be used interchangeably.
One is the British system: RMS type objective thread: 4/5in X 1/36in,
One is metric: M25 X 0.75mm thread.
Illumination BaseClose Λ
|Illumination base is a modular light source component, suitable for microscope stand base that has no light source of itself, and it is usually dedicated components supporting some stands.|
Illumination base typically includes at least one bottom lighting, and there are also illumination base that includes the circuit portion of the upper light source.
Coaxial Coarse/Fine FocusClose Λ
|Focus mechanism, the coarse / fine focus knobs are in a coaxial center position, they are connected together by a gear reduction mechanism, which can be coarse/ fine focus adjusted at any time during the entire stroke.|
Generally, the coarse focus diameter is relatively big, which is inside close to the body of the microscope, and the fine focus diameter is relatively small, which is outside of the body of the microscope. Coarse focus adjustment is used to quickly move to find the image, and the fine focus adjustment is used to finely adjust the clarity of the image. Generally, the minimum read value of the fine focus adjustment can be accurate to 1 micron, and single circle can reach a stroke of 0.1 mm. Mechanical fine focus plays a very important role in the accuracy of the microscope resolution. If the fine focus accuracy is not enough, or cannot be stabilized at the sharpest focusing position, the image will be out of focus and become blurred.
The tightness of coarse focus is generally adjustable. Generally, on one side of the knob (usually on the right side), there is a textured knob on the inside of the coarse knob, which is tightened if rotated clockwise; and loosened if rotated counterclockwise.
In the process of focusing, direct focusing should not be on the objective of high magnification; instead, find the object of low magnification first, and gradually adjust to high magnification. Usually, the coarse focus knob is rotated first, and when the objective lens is gradually lowered or the platform is gradually rising, find the object, and then adjust with the fine focus, until the object image in the field of view is clear. Generally, when changing from low magnification to high magnification objective, one only need to slightly adjust the fine focus knob to make the object image clear. During the process, the distance between the objective and the specimen should be observed from the side, to understand the critical value of the object distance between the lens and the specimen.
When using a high magnification objective, since the distance between the objective and the specimen is very close, after the image is found, the coarse focus knob cannot generally be used, and the fine focus knob can only be used to avoid excessive distance of movement, damaging the objective and the slide or specimen.
By using the characteristics of the fine focus, the height or thickness of the observed object can be roughly measured under the microscope, such as measuring the thickness of the cell or tissue, the thickness of the cover glass, and the thickness of small objects that cannot be measured by various conventional measuring instruments.
Method of measurement: place the object to be measured at the center of the field of view of the stage. After the image is clearly focused, try to use the highest magnification objective as much as possible, and align the adapter of the top feature point of the object to be measured. After adjusting clear, record the position of scale of the fine focus knob. Then, move the objective down to the adapter of the lowest feature point of the object to be measured, and record the position of scale of the fine focus knob. Then, according to the above fine focus, record the number of rounds of movement, and based on the parameters of conversion of each round into stroke (see the microscope fine focus knob parameters), the number of rounds is converted into the total stroke, which is the height of the object to be measured. If it is repeated a few times for average, a more accurate measurement can be obtained.
Focus LimitedClose Λ
|Mostly, at the junction of the compound microscope platform and the body, there is a longitudinal limit mechanism. When the limit mechanism is locked, the platform is prevented from moving up and colliding with the microscope objective, thereby damaging the specimen or destroying the lens.|
On its first use, use one specimen, applying 100X or the highest magnification lens, carefully find the clearest image, then lock the axial limit mechanism down, the focus mechanism will remember this position. When the focus is adjusted again to reach this position in the future, it will not go up again, and the platform or specimen will not touch the lens.
Focusing Knob Tightness AdjustableClose Λ
|Different microscope bodies, different human operations, and different requirements for observation and operation, all require adjustment of the pre-tightening force of the stand that support microscope body.|
Facing the stand just right, use both hands to reverse the force to adjust the tightness. (face the knob of one side just right, clockwise is to tighten, counterclockwise is to loosen)
In general, after long-time use, the knob will be loose, and adjustment is necessary.
Stage Backlight Window SizeClose Λ
|Stage backlight window size refers to the size of the window through which the transmitted light passes under the stage on the XY table plane of the stage.|
This window is usually covered with a piece of glass. For some stages with accuracy requirements in the XY horizontal direction, the horizontal plane of the glass can be adjusted by the height of the screws on the four corners below, and the consistency with the height of the stage plane is guaranteed.
Stage ClipClose Λ
|Stage clip is a spring piece mounted on the microscope stage for fixing the slide or the object to be observed.|
Multifunctional Slit PlateClose Λ
|Multifunctional slit plate is a device that carries the specimen of the object. Multifunctional slit plate is generally made of metal, and has various shapes according to different requirements, which is convenient for observing different requirements of the object.|
Coaxial Reflection IlluminatorClose Λ
|Coaxial reflection light is realized by a coaxial reflection illuminator. Coaxial reflection illuminator is placed horizontally, parallel to the worktable, and is at a 90 degree angle to the optical axis of the microscope. When the illumination light passes through the coaxial reflection illuminator, the light is first turned through a reflection prism or beam splitter to a 90-degree angle, and is vertically (or nearly vertical) irradiated onto the surface of the object to be observed, and then reflected back to enter into the eyepiece through the objective lens.|
The coaxial reflected light is suitable for illuminating planar objects and objects with high reflectivity. In addition, when the opaque or translucent objects are observed by large magnification objective lens, if the working distance is too short and an external light source cannot be used, the coaxial reflected light may be the best and the only choice.
Coaxial reflection illuminator, usually consisting of illumination light source, lamp chamber, condenser lens, aperture diaphragm and field diaphragm, color filter converter, and heat sink etc., achieves light emission and control.
The light or lamp chamber is generally made of a metal shell, with a ventilating vent or heat sink on the outside, but does not leak light, and has a spiral or top wire mechanism for adjusting the light axis.
Light source filament position and coaxial adjustment of the center of the optical axis
Because the illumination source is modularized with the microscope body and also, when in use, due to movement operation etc., the position of the filament of the illumination source and the illumination optical axis often deviate, which causes the Kohler illumination system to be damaged, thereby affecting the brightness of the field of view and the uniformity of illumination.
The main reason that affects the uniformity of illumination is that the position of the filament of the light source is not on the optical axis, which makes the field of view appear uneven. The main reason that affects the brightness of the field of view is that, after passing through the condenser for condensation, the illumination light is not focused on the aperture diaphragm plane.
The above therefore needs to adjust the position of the bulb in the coaxial reflection illuminator. Firstly, by adjusting the positioning screw on the light source, change the position of the lamp holder, and adjust the illumination bulb up and down, left and right, so that the filament is located on the optical axis of the center. Then, loosen the fixing screws on the condenser, move the condenser back and forth, so that the illumination light will converge at the center of the aperture diaphragm, and then tighten the screws. This not only makes the illumination in the field of view the brightest, but also uniform, and has no filament image.
Some metallurgical microscopes are equipped with "light chamber adjustment objective lens". When using, first remove an objective lens, rotate the light chamber adjustment objective lens into the nosepiece, and transfer it into the imaging light path, and replace the objective lens for the above adjustment.
Light AdjustableClose Λ
|The brightness of the light source adjustable is very important in the imaging of the microscope. Since the difference of the numerical aperture of the objective lens of high magnification and low magnification is very big, more incident light is needed to achieve a much better resolution when using a high magnification objective lens. Therefore, when observing through a high magnification objective lens, the brightness required is high; when observing through a low magnification objective lens, the brightness required is low.|
When observing different objects, or feature points of the same object at different positions, the brightness needs are also different; including the difference of background light or reflection within the field of view of observation, it has a great influence on the effect of observing the object, and therefore one needs to adjust the brightness of the light source according to each object to be observed.
In the light source capable of providing continuous spectrum, such as a halogen lamp, the brightness adjustment of the light not only adjusts the brightness and intensity of the light, but also changes the spectrum emitted by the light source. When the light source is dark, there are many components of red light, and when the brightness is high, there are more blue spectrum. If the required light is strong and the spectrum needs to be changed, the light can be kept at a brighter intensity, which is solved by adjusting the spectrum by adding a color filter.
Take note of the dimming button on the light source, after the On/Off switch is turned on, normally clockwise is to brighten, and counterclockwise is to darken.
If it is adjusted to the lowest brightness, the light source should normally be lit. If the naked eye still can't see the object being illuminated brightly, you need to adjust the brightness knob to a much bigger position.
Generally, there is scale marking on the dimming knob, which is an imaginary number representing the percentage of brightness, or an electronic digital display, giving the brightness of the light source under the same conditions a marking.
Aperture DiaphragmClose Λ
|The diaphragm that determines the image plane necessary for imaging through the objective lens is called the aperture diaphragm. All irises of the traditional microscope are aperture diaphragm.|
The function of aperture diaphragm is mainly to limit the size of the imaging beam, change the luminous flux, thereby improving the imaging quality. The size of the aperture diaphragm is usually variable, and it is also called iris diaphragm. When the aperture diaphragm lock is too small and the luminous flux of the imaging beam is insufficient, the fraction ratio of the objective lens is low, the imaging will become dark; however, when the aperture diaphragm is too large, there will be strong light in the field of view, and even though viewed from the eyepiece, it may have high resolution, the image on the display will be overexposed.
After replacing the objective lens, the aperture diaphragm should also be adjusted appropriately, rather than adjusting the brightness of the light.
The aperture diaphragm of the transmitted light is generally mounted on the microscope base. The aperture diaphragm of the biological microscope is mounted on the condenser device. On the other hand, the aperture diaphragm of compound microscopes, such as large upright metallurgical or fluorescence microscopes, is generally mounted on the in the coaxial reflection illuminator.
In the use of the aperture diaphragm, it is often necessary to adjust the center of the diaphragm. Generally, it is adjusted together with the condenser. Please refer to the adjustment method of the condenser.
Field DiaphragmClose Λ
|Field diaphragm is also called field of view diaphragm, field of view cutting diaphragm. |
The diaphragm that defines the incident angle of view and the exit angle of view of the beam emitted from the object plane, is called field diaphragm.
The main function of the field diaphragm is to limit the range of the image surface size of the observed specimen, and cut off the part of the image edge image plane with relatively poor image quality, so that the entire image plane is clear and flat, but does not affect the resolution of the entire objective lens.
The appropriate adjustment of the field diaphragm can also adjust the glare reflected from the inner wall of the lens tube to improve the imaging contrast and quality. On the eyepiece of the microscope, there is a field-cutting diaphragm. The size of this diaphragm is fixed, and it is also called fixed diaphragm. Its position is between the field lens and the eyepiece, and its function is to limit the emit angle of view of the main beam, so as to make the imaging of the field edge to achieve an ideal effect.
The field diaphragm of most biological microscopes is on the light exit of the base, while the field diaphragm of compound microscopes, such as upright metallurgical and fluorescent microscope, are mounted on the coaxial reflection illuminator.
Color FilterClose Λ
|Color filter is a type of filter that allows light of only a certain wavelength and color range to pass, while light of other wavelengths is intercepted. Color filter is made of colored glass, and it has various bandwidths and color for selection.|
Both artificial light source (lamp light) and natural light (daylight) are all full-color light, including seven colors, namely, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and purple. As the microscope illumination, different types of light sources have different color temperatures and brightness. In order to adjust the color of the light source, it is necessary to install a filtering device at the light exit port of the light source, so that the spectrum of a certain wavelength band is transmitted or blocked. Color filter generally can only be added to the illumination path to change the color of the illumination source and improve the contrast of the image, but generally it is not installed in the imaging path system, which affect the image quality.
There are many types of color filters. In addition to the color requirements, color filters of different colors also contribute to the imaging quality. Color filters using the same color will brighten the color of the image.
Of the traditional daylight filter, there are relatively more red and yellow light in the lamp light, the resolution is not high, and the observation is not comfortable. The use of daylight filter can absorb the color between yellow to red spectrum emitted by the light source, thus the color temperature becomes much closer to daylight, making microscope observation more comfortable, and it is one of the most used microscope color filters.
Daylight blue filter can get close to the daylight spectrum, obtain more short-wave illumination, and improve the resolution of the objective lens. For example, using blue color filter (λ=0.44 microns) can improve the resolution by 25% than green color filter (λ=0.55 microns). Therefore, blue color filter can improve the resolution, and improve the image effect observed under the microscope. However, the human eye is sensitive to green light with a wavelength of about 0.55 microns. When using blue color filters for photomicrography, it is often not easy to focus on the projection screen.
Yellow and green filters: both yellow and green filters can increase the contrast (i.e. contrast ratio) of details of the specimen. As far as the achromatic objective lens is concerned, the aberrations in the yellow and green bands are better corrected. Therefore, when yellow and green color filters are used, only yellow and green light passes, and the aberration will be reduced, thereby improving the imaging quality. For semi-apochromatic and apochromat objectives, the focus of visible light is concentrated. In principle, any color filter can be used, but if yellow and green filters are used, the color will make the human eye feel comfortable and soft.
Red filter. Red has the longest wavelength and the lowest resolution in visible light. However, red light image can filter and eliminate the variegated background in the image. Therefore, so it has a very good effect for some applications that do not require color features for identification, and the edges and contours of the image are also the clearest, which is more accurate for measurement.
Medium gray filters, also known as neural density filters, or ND for short, can uniformly reduce visible light. It is suitable for photomicrography and connection to computer monitors for observation. ND can be used for exposure control and good light absorption, and reduce the light intensity while not changing the color temperature of the microscope light source.
Coupler/C-mount AdapterClose Λ
|Coupler/C-mount adapter is an adapter commonly used for connection between the C-adapter camera (industrial camera) and a microscope.|
Coupler for Microscope TypeClose Λ
|Different coupler/C-mount-adapters are suitable for different microscopes. For some, some adapter accessories need to be replaced. See the applicable range of each coupler/C-mount-adapter for details.|
Coupler MagnificationClose Λ
|Coupler magnification refers to the line field magnification of the coupler/C-mount-adapter. With different magnifications of the adapter lens, images of different magnifications and fields of view can be obtained. The size of the image field of view is related to the sensor size and the coupler/C-mount-adapter magnification.|
Camera image field of view (mm) = sensor diagonal / coupler/C-mount-adapter magnification.
For example: 1/2 inch sensor size, 0.5X coupler/C-mount-adapter coupler, field of view FOV (mm) = 8mm / 0.5 = 16mm.
The field of view number of the microscope 10X eyepiece is usually designed to be 18, 20, 22, 23mm, less than 1 inch (25.4mm). Since most commonly used camera sensor sizes are 1/3 and 1/2 inches, this makes the image field of view on the display always smaller than the field of view of the eyepiece for observation, and the visual perception becomes inconsistent when simultaneously viewed on both the eyepiece and the display. If it is changed to a 0.5X coupler/C-mount-adapter, the microscope image magnification is reduced by 1/2 and the field of view is doubled, then the image captured by the camera will be close to the range observed in the eyepiece.
Some adapters are designed without a lens, and their optical magnification is considered 1X.
C/CS-Mount CouplerClose Λ
|At present, the coupler/C-mount adapter generally adopts the C/CS-Mount adapter to match with the industrial camera. For details, please refer to "Camera Lens Mount".|
|After unpacking, carefully inspect the various random accessories and parts in the package to avoid omissions. In order to save space and ensure safety of components, some components will be placed outside the inner packaging box, so be careful of their inspection.|
For special packaging, it is generally after opening the box, all packaging boxes, protective foam, plastic bags should be kept for a period of time. If there is a problem during the return period, you can return or exchange the original. After the return period (usually 10-30 days, according to the manufacturer’s Instruction of Terms of Service), these packaging boxes may be disposed of if there is no problem.
|Microscope Optical Data Sheet|
|P/N||Objective||Objective Working Distance||Eyepiece|
|MT14022211 (10X Dia. 18mm)|
|Magnification||Field of View(mm)|
|1. Magnification=Objective Optical Magnification * Body Magnification * Eyepiece Optical Magnification|
|2. Field of View=Eyepiece Field of View /（Objective Optical Magnification*Body Magnification）|
|3. The Darker background items are Standard items, the white background items are optional items.|
|Video Microscope Optical Data Sheet|
|1. Magnification=Objective Optical Magnification * Body Magnification * Coupler Magnification|
|Desiccant Bag||1 Bag|
|Cedar Oil||1 Bottle|
|Product Instructions/Operation Manual||1pc|
|Packaging Type||Carton Packaging|
|Packaging Material||Corrugated Carton|
|Packaging Dimensions(1)||51x41x33cm (20.079x16.142x12.992″)|
|Inner Packing Material||Plastic Bag|
|Ancillary Packaging Materials||Expanded Polystyrene|
|Gross Weight||10.34kg (22.80lbs)|
|Minimum Packaging Quantity||1pc|
|Transportation Carton||Carton Packaging|
|Transportation Carton Material||Corrugated Carton|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(1)||51x41x33cm (20.079x16.142x12.992″)|
|Total Gross Weight of Transportation(kilogram)||10.34|
|Total Gross Weight of Transportation(pound)||22.80|